Fettes, P., Schulze, L. & Downar, J. Cortico-striatal-thalamic loop circuits of the orbitofrontal cortex: promising therapeutic targets in psychiatric illness. Front. Syst. Neurosci. 11, 25 (2017).
Miller, E. K. The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 1, 59–65 (2000).
Fuster, J. M. The prefrontal cortex—an update: time is of the essence. Neuron 30, 319–333 (2001).
Rolls, E. T. The orbitofrontal cortex and reward. Cereb. Cortex 10, 284–294 (2000).
Izquierdo, A. Functional heterogeneity within rat orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and decision making. J. Neurosci. 37, 10529–10540 (2017).
Rudebeck, P. H. & Murray, E. A. The orbitofrontal oracle: cortical mechanisms for the prediction and evaluation of specific behavioral outcomes. Neuron 84, 1143–1156 (2014).
Rushworth, M. F. S., Noonan, M. P., Boorman, E. D., Walton, M. E. & Behrens, T. E. Frontal cortex and reward-guided learning and decision-making. Neuron 70, 1054–1069 (2011).
Wallis, J. D. Orbitofrontal cortex and its contribution to decision-making. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 30, 31–56 (2007).
Carlén, M. What constitutes the prefrontal cortex? Science 358, 478–482 (2017).
Chen, J. L., Carta, S., Soldado-Magraner, J., Schneider, B. L. & Helmchen, F. Behaviour-dependent recruitment of long-range projection neurons in somatosensory cortex. Nature 499, 336–340 (2013).
Chen, J. L. et al. Pathway-specific reorganization of projection neurons in somatosensory cortex during learning. Nat. Neurosci. 18, 1101–1108 (2015).
Petersen, C. C. H. Sensorimotor processing in the rodent barrel cortex. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 20, 533–546 (2019).
Bissonette, G. B., Schoenbaum, G., Roesch, M. R. & Powell, E. M. Interneurons are necessary for coordinated activity during reversal learning in orbitofrontal cortex. Biol. Psychiatry 77, 454–464 (2015).
Jennings, J. H. et al. Interacting neural ensembles in orbitofrontal cortex for social and feeding behaviour. Nature 565, 645–649 (2019).
Pho, G. N., Goard, M. J., Woodson, J., Crawford, B. & Sur, M. Task-dependent representations of stimulus and choice in mouse parietal cortex. Nat. Commun. 9, 2596 (2018).
Ramesh, R. N., Burgess, C. R., Sugden, A. U., Gyetvan, M. & Andermann, M. L. Intermingled ensembles in visual association cortex encode stimulus identity or predicted outcome. Neuron 100, 900–915.e9 (2018).
Voigt, F. F. et al. The mesoSPIM initiative: open-source light-sheet microscopes for imaging cleared tissue. Nat. Methods 16, 1105–1108 (2019).
Bastos, A. M. et al. Canonical microcircuits for predictive coding. Neuron 76, 695–711 (2012).
Schoenbaum, G., Roesch, M. R., Stalnaker, T. A. & Takahashi, Y. K. A new perspective on the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in adaptive behaviour. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 885–892 (2009).
Schultz, W. & Dickinson, A. Neuronal coding of prediction errors. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 473–500 (2000).
Sul, J. H., Kim, H., Huh, N., Lee, D. & Jung, M. W. Distinct roles of rodent orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex in decision making. Neuron 66, 449–460 (2010).
Chudasama, Y. & Robbins, T. W. Dissociable contributions of the orbitofrontal and infralimbic cortex to Pavlovian autoshaping and discrimination reversal learning: further evidence for the functional heterogeneity of the rodent frontal cortex. J. Neurosci. 23, 8771–8780 (2003).
Groman, S. M. et al. Orbitofrontal circuits control multiple reinforcement-learning processes. Neuron 103, 734–746.e3 (2019).
Hattori, R., Danskin, B., Babic, Z., Mlynaryk, N. & Komiyama, T. Area-specificity and plasticity of history-dependent value coding during learning. Cell 177, 1858–1872 (2019).
Saez, R. A., Saez, A., Paton, J. J., Lau, B. & Salzman, C. D. Distinct roles for the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in representing the relative amount of expected reward. Neuron 95, 70–77.e3 (2017).
Rikhye, R. V., Gilra, A. & Halassa, M. M. Thalamic regulation of switching between cortical representations enables cognitive flexibility. Nat. Neurosci. 21, 1753–1763 (2018).
Shuler, M. G. & Bear, M. F. Reward timing in the primary visual cortex. Science 311, 1606–1609 (2006).
Chéreau, R. et al. Dynamic perceptual feature selectivity in primary somatosensory cortex upon reversal learning. Nat. Commun. 11, 3245 (2020).
Bari, A. et al. Serotonin modulates sensitivity to reward and negative feedback in a probabilistic reversal learning task in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 35, 1290–1301 (2010).
Isaacson, J. S. & Scanziani, M. How inhibition shapes cortical activity. Neuron 72, 231–243 (2011).
Neftci, E. O. & Averbeck, B. B. Reinforcement learning in artificial and biological systems. Nat. Mach. Intell. 1, 133–143 (2019).
Mayford, M. et al. Control of memory formation through regulated expression of a CaMKII transgene. Science 274, 1678–1683 (1996).
Madisen, L. et al. Transgenic mice for intersectional targeting of neural sensors and effectors with high specificity and performance. Neuron 85, 942–958 (2015).
Harris, J. A. et al. Anatomical characterization of Cre driver mice for neural circuit mapping and manipulation. Front. Neural Circuits 8, 76 (2014).
Carandini, M. & Churchland, A. K. Probing perceptual decisions in rodents. Nat. Neurosci. 16, 824–831 (2013).
Bailey, K. R. & Crawley, J. N. in Methods in Behavioral Analysis in Neuroscience (eds Bailey, K. R., Crawley, J. N. & Buccafusco, J. J.) Ch. 5 (CRC, 2009).
Farr, T. D., Liu, L., Colwell, K. L., Whishaw, I. Q. & Metz, G. A. Bilateral alteration in stepping pattern after unilateral motor cortex injury: a new test strategy for analysis of skilled limb movements in neurological mouse models. J. Neurosci. Methods 153, 104–113 (2006).
Banerjee, A. et al. Jointly reduced inhibition and excitation underlies circuit-wide changes in cortical processing in Rett syndrome. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, E7287–E7296 (2016).
Yang, B. et al. Single-cell phenotyping within transparent intact tissue through whole-body clearing. Cell 158, 945–958 (2014).
Chung, K. et al. Structural and molecular interrogation of intact biological systems. Nature 497, 332–337 (2013).
Gomez, J. L. et al. Chemogenetics revealed: DREADD occupancy and activation via converted clozapine. Science 357, 503–507 (2017).
Gilad, A., Gallero-Salas, Y., Groos, D. & Helmchen, F. Behavioral strategy determines frontal or posterior location of short-term memory in neocortex. Neuron 99, 814–828.e7 (2018).
Langer, D. et al. HelioScan: a software framework for controlling in vivo microscopy setups with high hardware flexibility, functional diversity and extendibility. J. Neurosci. Methods 215, 38–52 (2013).
Guo, Z. V. et al. Flow of cortical activity underlying a tactile decision in mice. Neuron 81, 179–194 (2014).
Sreenivasan, V. et al. Movement initiation signals in mouse whisker motor cortex. Neuron 92, 1368–1382 (2016).
Huber, D. et al. Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning. Nature 484, 473–478 (2012).